1. Class conflict - According to Karl Marx (1818–1883), the struggle between the capitalist class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat).
2. Modernization theory - a version of market-oriented developmental theory that argues that low-income societies develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment.
3. Stereotype - oversimplified image applied to a category of people
4. Kinship - refers to a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage or adoption.
5. Health - World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.
6. Pay gap – the disparity between women’s and men’s earning.
7. Absolute poverty - absence of enough money to secure lifes necessities
8. Core countries – are dominant capitalist centers characterized by high levels of industrialization and urbanization. Eg: US and Japan.
9. Race - is a category of people who have been singled out of inferior or superior, often on the basis of real alleged physical characteristics such as skin, color, hair texture, eye shape or other subjectively selected attribute. Eg: Malaysian, Asian American.
10. Sexism - beliefs attitudes norms and values used to justlify sexual inequality.
11. Cohabitation - as referring to two people who live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married.
12. Social epidemiology - is the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.