Attitude – When a worker is abrupt due to time limits, not having enough resources or their mood, the person they are speaking to may feel intimidated or frustrated and not want to communicate.
Limited use of technology – When the technological aids known to be the best way for someone to communicate are not available.
Body positioning – Sitting too close could be intimidating and would make an individual feel uncomfortable. Sitting too far away could show lack of interest or concern.
Emotions – When someone is depressed, angry, embarrassed or upset their emotions may affect their ability to think and communicate in a sensible way.
Physical – When someone has physical conditions that create communication difficulties, for example, being breathless, not having any teeth or being in pain.
Not enough time – Not giving individuals time to say what they want may make them feel rushed and reluctant to express their true wishes.
Poor or negative body language – Crossed arms or legs, poor facial expressions, poor body positioning, constant fidgeting or looking at a watch or mobile phone can all make someone less likely to communicate.
Lack of privacy – Think carefully about where and when private and confidential conversations should take place.
Stereotyping – Generalisations about a group of people that are wrong and misleading. An example would be that ‘all older people are hard of hearing'.
Other barriers include sensory impairments, culture, language, noise, lighting or substance misuse.
REDUCING BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
As a worker you should do what you can to reduce any barriers to communication. The most effective way to make sure that you are meeting someone’s communication needs and providing person centred care is to know as much as possible as you can about them.
A ‘communication passport’ might be used by some which provides vital information about their needs, wishes and preferences. This pulls together the information into a format that is easy to read, often with pictures and photographs. Putting something like this together with an individual can be another good way of getting to know them well and understanding their needs. Your organisation might have a suggested format but at a simple level you can put one together with the individual to suit them.
It is important to get regular feedback about your communication style and methods from the people you provide care and support to so that you can continue to improve how you communicate. You could also increase your awareness of different communication needs and methods through taking up learning opportunities. Experience will help you to develop a variety of new methods of communication and selecting the best one in each situation. Be creative. Open body language and a positive, non-judgemental attitude will further help reduce barriers. Your communication skills should be seen as a toolbox, using the right tool for the right job and choosing a different tool if one doesn’t work well.
source : http://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Documents/Learning-and-development/Care Certificate/Standard-6.pdf